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The Physical Worldornament
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The Restless universe
Introduction to The restless Universe

1 The lawful Universe

2 The clockwork Universe

3 The irreversible Universe

4 The intangible Universe

4.1 Electromagnetism and fields 1/4

4.1 Electromagnetism and fields 2/4

4.1 Electromagnetism and fields 3/4

4.1 Electromagnetism and fields 4/4

» 4.2 Relativity, space, time and gravity 1/4

4.2 Relativity, space, time and gravity 2/4

4.2 Relativity, space, time and gravity 3/4

4.2 Relativity, space, time and gravity 4/4

5 The uncertain Universe

6 Closing items

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Other titles in the Physical World series

Describing motion

Predicting motion

Classical physics of matter

Static fields and potentials

Dynamic fields and waves

Quantum physics: an introduction

Quantum physics of matter

4 The intangible Universe

4.2 Relativity,space,time and gravity

Part 1 of 4 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4

For a printable version of 'The intangible Universe' click here

figure 1.25, Albert EinsteinFigure 1.25s
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
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Responsible for one of the greatest intellectual achievements of the twentieth century
Click here to learn more about Einstein


Throughout the development of mechanics and electromagnetism, the role of space and time had been clear and simple. Space and time were simply the arena within which the drama of physics was played out. Speaking metaphorically, the principal 'actors' were matter and ether/fields; space and time provided the setting but didn't get involved in the action. All that changed with the advent of the theory of relativity.

The theory was developed in two parts. The first part is called the special theory of relativity, or, occasionally, the restricted theory, and was introduced in 1905. The second part is called the general theory, and dates from about 1916. Both parts were devised by the same man, Albert Einstein
The special theory of relativity is discussed in Dynamic fields and waves, book 6 of the Physical World series
The origins of the special theory of relativity can be traced back a long way. In 1632, Galileo wrote:

'Shut yourself up with some friend in the main cabin below decks on some large ship, and have with you there some flies, butterflies and other small flying animals. Have a large bowl of water with some fish in it; hang up a bottle that empties drop by drop into a wide vessel beneath it. With the ship standing still, observe carefully how the little animals fly with equal speed to all sides of the cabin. The fish swim indifferently in all directions; the drop falls into the vessel beneath; and, in throwing something to your friend, you need throw no more strongly in one direction than another, the distances being equal; jumping with your feet together, you pass equal spaces in every direction. When you have observed all these things carefully (though there is no doubt that when the ship is standing still everything must happen in this way), have the ship proceed with any speed you like, so long as the motion is uniform and not fluctuating this way and that. You will discover not the least change in all the effects named, nor could you tell from any of them whether the ship was moving or standing still.'
Galileo Galilei (1632), Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World.

In other words, any phenomenon you care to study occurs in just the same way in a steadily moving ship as in a stationary ship. The underlying physical laws and fundamental constants must therefore be exactly the same for all uniformly moving (or stationary) observers. This fact, which dozing train passengers may accept with gratitude, is the central idea of the theory of special relativity. Indeed, it is called the principle of relativity. This leaves one obvious question: how did Einstein gain both fame and notoriety for promoting an idea that was nearly three hundred years old?
Continue on to Relativity, space, time and gravity, part 2 of 4

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Index

S207 The Physical World
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