The Physical Worldornament
physical world logo

The Restless universe
Introduction to The restless Universe

1 The lawful Universe

2 The clockwork Universe

3 The irreversible Universe

4 The intangible Universe

5 The uncertain Universe

An introuduction to The uncertain Universe 1/2

An introuduction to The uncertain Universe 2/2

5.1 Quantum mechanics and chance 1/3

5.1 Quantum mechanics and chance 2/3

5.1 Quantum mechanics and chance 3/3

5.2 Quantum fields and unification 1/3

5.2 Quantum fields and unification 2/3

5.2 Quantum fields and unification 3/3

5.3 The end of physics 1/1

6 Closing items

» 6.1 Chapter summary 1/1

6.2 Achievements 1/1

6.3 End-of-chapter questions 1/1


Other titles in the Physical World series

Describing motion

Predicting motion

Classical physics of matter

Static fields and potentials

Dynamic fields and waves

Quantum physics: an introduction

Quantum physics of matter

6 Closing items

6.1 Chapter summary

Part 1 of 1

For a printable version of 'The closing items' click here

1. Laws summarize regularities observed in Nature. They can summarize large numbers of similar phenomena and make it possible to predict the course of particular phenomena.

2. In physics, many of the laws are expressed mathematically and concern measurable quantities. This aids precision and clarity, and it supports rational argument.

3. Newtonian mechanics is based on equations (Newton's laws of motion, Newton's law of universal gravitation) that are deterministic: they have the property that the present is entirely determined by the past. Complete knowledge of the state of the Universe at any one time would make possible, in principle, the determination of its state at all other times.

4. Thermodynamics, with its emphasis on energy conservation (the first law) and entropy growth (the second law) indicates an effectively unavoidable irreversibility in the laws of Nature.

5. Electromagnetism was ultimately responsible for the introduction of the field as a new fundamental ingredient in physical world-views. Although attempts were made to formulate mechanical models of the electromagnetic field, such efforts are no longer a serious topic of scientific investigation. Fields are introduced to avoid the use of action at a distance.

6. Special relativity is based on the idea that observers in uniform motion should agree about the laws of physics. It has the effect of unifying space and time into a space-time that different observers slice into space and time in ways that depend on their relative motion.

7. General relativity represents gravity as a manifestation of space-time curvature: 'matter tells space how to curve, space tells matter how to move'.

8. Quantum physics is characterized by the intrinsic and unavoidable use of probability (implying indeterminacy in the behaviour of individual systems). Quantum mechanics is a major subdivision of quantum physics that deals with particles and calls into question the simplest kind of realism. Quantum field theory is another major subdivision of quantum physics. It deals with fields and represents a natural fusion of quantum physics and special relativity. Quantum fields can be interpreted in terms of particles and provide a good way of describing at least three of the four fundamental forces of Nature.
Continue on to 6.2 Achievements


Advanced Search
and search tips

Relevant Links

A note on powers of ten and significant figures

Some highlights of physics

Featured Physicists

Suggestions for further reading

Questions, answers and comments



S207 The Physical World